Учет в переводе информации, связанной с территориальным распространением языка. Передача контанимированной речи.

Тема I: Передача информации, содержащейся в грамматических формах и конструкциях английского языка, которые не имеют системных соответствий в русском языке

1. Артикль

Прочитайте статьи о различных способах перевода артикля на русский язык в учебниках а) Левицкая Т.Р., Фитерман А.М. Пособие по переводу с английского языка на русский. М., 1973, с.15-16; б) Дмитриева Л.Ф., Кунцевич С.Е., Мартинкевич Е.Д., Смирнова Н.Ф. Ан7глийский язык. Курс перевода. – Ростов-на-Дону: МарТ, 2005, с.290-292; в) Зражевская Т.А., Гуськова Т.И. Translation from English into Russian: Mastering the Technique. М., 1986, с.94-97.

В дальнейшем вы можете пользоваться данной таблицей:

Таблица 1. Правила перевода артиклей

определенный артикль неопределенный артикль
I.В функции определения: указательные местоимения, прилагательные и др.
тот, тот самый, этот, все, текущий, нынешний, настоящий, (ныне) существующий, действующий и т.д.
II.При переводе артикля перед названием страны, города, какого-то события или явления: приемы добавления, лексического развертывания.
the war – вторая мировая война или война в Афганистане и т.д.
the Depression – великий кризис 30-х годов
I.В классифицирующей функции: такие слова, как:
такой, такого рода, один из, некий, новый, известный, любой, определенный, один и т.д.

II.Для соблюдения норм сочетаемости (с глаголами to call for, to announce, to seek, to favour, to propose, to plan, to wage): прием дополнения (лексической развертки).

III.В функции маркера центра высказывания: изменение порядка слов (в русской письменной речи центр высказывания обычно находится в конце предложения).

IV.В случае, когда употребление или отсутствие неопределенного артикля изменяет значение слова:
a power – держава, power- власть, могущество, электроэнергия;
a government – правительство, government – управление;
a few, a little – некоторое кол-во (положительное значение), few, little – мало (иногда просто отрицание).

NB: Высказывания, содержащие неопределенный артикль с огра­ничительным значением.Неопределенный артикль иногда употреб­ляется в ограничительном значении. Его роль при этом состоит в том, чтобы среди всех возможных признаков предмета выделить какой-то один признак:

The only sensible solution in the Mid­dle East is a peace which would give the Palestinians the autonomy they desire. — Единственно разумный способ уре­гулирования на Ближнем Востоке — это такой мир, который бы дал палестин­скому народу желанную независимость.

Неопределенный артикль в английском высказывании относится не к слову peace, а к одному из его признаков, выраженному придаточным определительным предложением. В русском высказывании это значе­ние передается местоимением такой.

В некоторых случаях для передачи ограничительного значения не­определенного артикля приходится использовать метод членения вы­сказывания:

Mist covered a calm sea in the Strait of Dover yesterday. — Вчера в проливе Па-де-Кале стоял туман. Море было спокойно.

Неопределенный артикль в словосочетании a calm sea выполняет ограничительную функцию. Он выделяет один из признаков моря — отсутствие на нем волнения. Для передачи этого признака, выраженно­го в английской фразе прилагательным calm, потребовалось отдельное высказывание: «Море было спокойно».

Проанализируйте приведенные переводы. Назовите способы передачи артикля.

1. I cannot identify anyone. But I could testify that a woman came out of that particular room at that particular time. Я не могу никого опознать. Но я могу засвидетельствовать, что какая-то женщина вышла из этой самой комнаты как раз в это время.
2. “Unless I can get to a major competition and win it”, a young American concert pianist said to me once, “I haven’t a hope of establishing myself here”. «Если я не попаду на какой-нибудь крупный конкурс и не одержу там победу, — сказал мне как-то один молодой американский пианист, — у меня нет никакой надежды занять здесь какое-нибудь положение».
3. I was beginning to mix with people of a kind I’d never mixed with before. Я начал встречаться с такими людьми, с которыми никогда не встречался раньше.
4. It was a very sharp and decisive Poirot who spoke now. Теперь Пуаро говорил иначе. Это был совсем другой Пуаро, резкий и решительный.
5. “She is inviting Jackson”. “Is he the one?” «Она приглашает Джексона». «Это тот самый

Проанализируйте и переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на перевод артиклей.

1. Under the law that established public financing of presidential campaigns, a presidential candidate who accepts the public funding may not directly raise any outside campaign money.

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2. There was a time when the government leaders were well aware of this.

3. A practical road safety campaign, “Mind That Child”, was launched in London yesterday by Minister of Transport. The aim of the campaign is to make roads safer for young people by giving more road education in the schools.

4. I became aware that a phase in our life had ended.

5. The speaker was not very sensitive. A restlessness in his audience was not noticed by him.

6. An acquaintance suggested that he should go into business and the idea seems to have appealed to him.

7. One does not just communicate, one communicates something to somebody. And the something communicated is not the words in the communication but whatever those words represent.

ƒ Переведите на русский язык, обосновав выбор варианта перевода выделенных существительных с артиклем.

1. His grandfather married a Rotschild, and there have been financial and family links between the two banking clans ever since.

2. In the Egypt of the Pharaohs a woman was forbidden to bear further children if her firstborn son bled to death from a minor wound.

3. Can I then say that the America I saw has put cleanliness first at the expense of taste?

4. One is the America of Abraham Lincoln, the other is the America of Theodore Roosevelt and the modern superpatriots.

5. He was introduced to a Mr. Black.

6. You hadn’t told me her name yet! Who is she? She’s a Mrs. Erlynne.

7. Suppose this man, and there are ten thousand such from whom you may select your victims, dragged into court to be tried for this new offence by this new law; Still there are two things wanting to convict and condemn him; and these are, in my opinion, twelve butchers for a jury, — and a Jefferies for a judge.

8. Nobody understands England today, and nobody will understand England tomorrow, least of all the Englishman.

9. The opponents of dun controls argue that no amount of legislation could have prevented a determined assassin from acquiring a weapon and killing a Kennedy.

10. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения.

1. Miss Prism, more is restored to you than the handbag. I was the baby you placed in it.

2. The shooting down of a man in an East London pub and the “butchery” of another in a Stroke Newington flat were described to a hushed court at the Old Bailey yesterday.

3. There has been talk of a coalition to solve the nation’s difficulties, but a coalition is useless without a common purpose and a shared philosophy.

4. Spain’s Public Order Court today sentenced Gonzalo Arias, a 42-year-old writer, to seven months imprisonment for parading in a Madrid street with placards calling for non-violent protest and free elections.

5. The so-called British “peace initiative” said not a word about stopping the bombing – the crucial question on which world opinion was concentrating.

6. Even when the General Assembly is in recess, the United Nations Headquarters is one of the relatively few buildings in New York where work goes on twenty-four hours a day.

7. Do you think it will make a difference to us? A difference. It’ll make the difference.

8. To gain freedom one sacrifices something – the house, the comfort, the tulips in the garden, and all that these things signify.

9. But Sidney was only a facade. Behind the handsome front lived the ‘genuine’ Sidney, feeble, lacking all tenacity of purpose in important matters, though obstinate where trifles were concerned.

10. What is the right attitude towards criticism?

Переведите тексты, обращая внимание на артикли.

1. “My name,” he said, “is Hercule Poirot”.

“Not,” the Commissary stammered, “not the Hercule Poirot?”

“The same,” said M.Poirot.

2. Our family name – on my oath, this is true – was Einstein. No relation to the Einstein but don’t you think that’s funny? The one name that’s apt to survive the next twenty centuries wasn’t good enough for my family.

3. “So Marie Hopeman is dead.”

“Yes”, I said. “She’s dead”.

“It’s always the best who go,” – he murmured. “We’ll never see a Marie Hopeman again.”

“No sir. We won’t see a Marie Hopeman again.”

4. “I don’t pretend to be a great painter,” he said, “I’m not a Michael Angelo, no, but I have something, I sell. I bring romance into the homes of all sorts of people…”

5. It was a time, had things been right, I should not have done it, but now, it was my real desire never to see them, or him either, any more. However, it was plain there was no bringing him to anything; he would neither go with me, nor let me go without him, and it was quite out of my power to stir without his consent…

2. Слова-заместители

Ознакомьтесь с правилами перевода слов-заместителей.

Существительное
that, those, (the) one, (the) ones

· В большинстве случаев существительное повторяется. Может также использоваться личное местоимение вместо существительного.

· Сущ-З + определительное придаточное предложение: «тот, который».

· Если смысл предложения ясен и без того: НЕ переводится.

This/those без последующего существительного: местоимения он, она, оно, они.

Прилагательное
so

· Повторяется

· Не повторяется

Глагол
полные Г-З частичные Г-З
(заместитель (часть вместо
целого) целого)
to do в Pr. и to have, will, etc.
Past Ind.
· Временная форма смыслового глагола и Г-З совпадают: заместитель можно опустить.

· Времена не совпадают: Г-З переводиться смысловым глаголом в том времени, в котором он употреблен.

· Перед Г-З:
as – как
than – чем, нежели эмфатическая
nor – а также … не инверсия ска-
so – также, такой же зуемого

Найдите слова-заместители существительного. Переведите предложения.

1. In reading Shakespeare’s works, one finds many common everyday words that are used with meanings quite different from those they have today.

2. The phonology of Korean is similar to that of both Japanese and Chinese, perhaps slightly favouring the latter.

3. Amber finds from North-Russian neolithic sites, in addition to those already mentioned in literature, are known at any rate from the dwelling places on the lake of Rostov.

4. I have pointed out that the language used by the child is determined far more by that of its playfellows than by that of its parents.

5. Aymara[1] is generally termed the «older» language, that is, that of wider extent in pre-Inca days, and one that has yielded ground to the Quecchua.

6. The Ainus[2] live in conditions somewhat similar to those of the Indians of the United States in certain areas of the Japanese islands, and are evidently the remnant of the people who inhabited the island empire before the Japanese came.

7. Hebrew has apparently successfully revived in Israel though Israeli Hebrew, too, is something quite different from that spoken in ancient times.

8. This sonnet and the one quoted above need, in fact, to be considered together.

9. Of course, the hieroglyphic writing had a stock of thousands of characters, and might well have included the ones we are looking for in texts which have disappeared or not yet been discovered.

10. Like that of Aztec, the bibliography of Quecchua is very large both early and recent. The best grammar seems to be that of Middendorf.

11. The later culture layer is poorer in forms and is more monotonous than the older one: many of the older types of harpoons and arrows are missing.

12. The skeletons were found in the trunk of a great tree. That of King Arthur was of a very large man, and Queen Guinevere was shrouded by her long golden hair.

Найдите прилагательные, которые заменяются словом so. Переведите предложения.

1. This list was criticized on various grounds, some quite legitimate, others less so.

2. The style of this novel is not more ornate than that, let us say, of Robinson Crusoe, and incomparably less so than that of many Japanese books of later date.

3. Of the criticism which appeared in the eighteen major reviews in England, nine were favourable, some very much so, three were lukewarm, but more favourable than hostile.

ƒ Переведите следующие предложения.

1. «The eagle sees much further than man, but the human eye sees considerably more in things than does the eye of the eagle», wrote Engels.

2. We know much more about Giovanni Pisano[3] than we do about his anonymous contemporaries who were at work on the Gothic cathedrals in France.

3. The typological classification of languages is not necessarily preferable to the genetic classification, nor does it supplant the genetic (as the latter does geographic).

4. There is a super-refined Oxford accent which produces as artificial an effect, in its own way, as does the pronunciation of some of the American stage stars.

5. Jones’ surmise that the Germanic languages were related to Latin, Greek and Sanscrit, at once proved true, as did later his surmise about Celtic.

6. The Chinese cannot properly be said to have an alphabet, since the characters used in writing do not represent sounds as do the letters of the alphabets that have been described.

7. The Roman baths (Bath) are the only hot springs in England. The Rump Room was ruined by the blitz during the war as were the Assembly Rooms.

8. It is bound to be a delicate operation, trenching as it does upon sensitive areas of a nation’s cultural heritage and on its spiritual inadequacies.

Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на слова-заместители.

1. «When I came here,» she explained to Mary, «nobody took any notice of me, so I thought.» «Well, I’ll jolly well make them notice me; I’ll be mad.» «So I was, and they did.»

2. British expenditure on health lags behind thatof other advanced countries, the Office of Health Economics estimates.

3. The only imaginable settlement in Vietnam is one that would lead to return to the 1954 Geneva agreements.

4. Immediately there was a burst of applause from all parts of the audience. Never in my lifetime has applause done me the good that did.

5. The real fool is he who does not know himself. I was such a one too long. You have been such a one too long. Be no more.

6. We (Democrats) must always be the party committed to caring, fairness and helping hand for the disadvantaged. But our compassion must be tempered with an awareness of the limitations of the government to solve every problem. Limitations exist, people know it, and they will not believe political leaders who don’t.

7. He believed the war made a stronger man as well — deepened his commitment to God and Christianity and helped him through prayer to master the fears he sensed in himself and saw in other men. «I asked Him not to let me be a coward,» Roger says, and God did not.

8. As the economy shows signs of improvement, so too willthe Government’s standing in the opinion polls.

9. I am here for having tried to put your father into prison. My attempt failed. Your father completely turned the tables on me, and had me in prison, hasme there still.

10. St. Louis was never what it thinks it was.But old cities, like old families, sustain themselves on dreams of vanished grandeur.

11. As the assistant secretary of state for international narcotic matters, Melvin Levitsky, told a House task force in July, «Let me be clear: It is not our policy to fight someone else’s drug war. We never have, nor willwe ever, force military assistance on any of the drug-producing countries.»

12. While a return to totalitarianism in Moscow now seemed out of the question,several European ministers remarked, civil strife and repression of ethnic minorities by new national states was not,as some constituent republics in the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia wrested sovereignty from the wreckageof communism.

13. The Catholic schools of New York educate as many pupils as the schools board of Washington, DC, but doso with almost exactly 1 per cent of DC’s administration.

14. Bertrand Russel said that whenever he talked to another savant, he became convinced that happiness was not possible for humans: when he talked to his gardener, he was sure that it was.

15. When it has seemed that drinking is becoming too much of a habit I have given itup for a few months — if only to check that one can. One can.

16. Today’s conference speech by Neil Kinnock is the last set-piece occasion before the election campaign begins for Labour to state its own agenda and communicate its distinctive vision of society — for Labour to prove that it deserves to be elected not simply because the Tories don’t,not just because we could manage things better than they have.

17. There is something about the world of business which can (and often does)defeat television producers. Normal routines of business involving documents, highly technical negotiations and accounts are hardly the stuff that attracts a mainstream audience.

Проанализируйте и переведите следующие предложения.

1. But if one has any sense of US history, one has to believe that both the corporations and the president whose program they are so enthusiastically prompting are on somewhat shaky ground.

2. Stressing that the salaries were not as high as those paid “in certain sections of industry”, Deputy Leader of the House said that the Power Minister had referred to the possibility of a review salaries in other nationalized industries.

3. Perhaps they may even engender a little shame among Cabinet Ministers at the hold-up in road building. If they do, the conference will be voted a great success.

4. The most striking thing about the French election campaign is the public lastitude, like that shown by Americans last fall.

5. The New Cabinet shows significant changes, both personal and constitutional, from the old one.

6. The law demands quinquennial parliaments not quadrennial ones.

7. The democratic and peace forces today have no task more pressing than that of safeguarding humanity against a global nuclear disaster.

Переведите следующие тексты.

1. The union wants exploratory faces to be opened but the board has already refused one appeal. If it does again it could lead to the implementation of the 66,000 Yorkshire miners’ massive vote to strike any pit closures.

2. The complaint that the French judiciary is under the thumb of whatever government may be in power is scarcely new. According to legal historians, it is a complaint that goes back for centuries – at least to the time of Louis XIV, whose ministers centralized the legal system, subordinating local and church law to that emanating from the royal family.

3. A Department of Trade report describes how some of the directors helped create non-existent companies, or business names, operated Swiss bank accounts and deceives auditors.

Former chairman was “a party to many transactions”, inspectors say. His standards fell substantially below those which may reasonably be expected of a person who held this high office.

3. Многозначные и многофункциональные слова


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